Making a 72 -slot Garden Barrel

This article is not finished, I need to add pictures that I have and am missing some sizes, and information).

I recently have built two Garden Barrels; one for me and one for my mother.  This was not an original idea.  This is based on the original Garden Tower design,  and other people (Half-Pint Homestead, _____, _____).  The basic idea is a barrel  on a movable wooden base with a compost tube in the middle and a tray to catch compost tea (nutrient dense water)  or worm castings from the compost tube.

The original Garden Tower design had less holes in it.  I am working on a template for this as well.  If you have any thoughts leave some comments below.  I know I have seen a video where the took a round post cut in half length-wise and with a wedge at one end and use that to pry the backside of the pouch first and then heated up the front and used a whole post with a wedge to finish off the hole.  A larger wine bottle may work as well.  I prefer the bottles.

List of items that you will need to assemble the parts:

  • one or two heat guns or a blow torch;  I used heat guns, you will find these in the painting section of the hardware store
  • miter saw or circular saw to cut wood
  • drill
  • various drill bits
    • drill bit for pilot holes in the wood
    • drill bit for drilling holes into the barrel (the size needs to be larger than the blade for cutting the slots)
    • ___ drill bit for creating holes in the PVC pipe
    • Phillips screwdriver bit for assembling the wood cart
  • a jigsaw or reciprocating saw to cut the top of the barrel off, cutting the slots for the holes and cutting the PVC pipe insert in the bottom, I think the reciprocating saw would be better for the top (I was able to use the jigsaw but it was not easier.  Another option would be a drill bit that cuts or a Dremel type tool
  • hacksaw for cutting the coupling and PVC pipe
  • 3 yards of vinyl for template (this is optional but highly recommended if you are going to do more than one plus I found this to be a lot easier than trying to draw the lines on the barrel, you can get this from Michaels)
  • a tape measure
  • straight edge
  • marker
  • pencil
  • PVC cement and primer
  • Welch’s Sparkling Grape juice bottles (4 minimum; 12 recommended; will greatly speed up the process)
  • couple of beer or rootbeer bottles (3 recommended)
  • duct tape or bungie cords
  • (3) clamps
  • (optional) Clothing tape measure
  • Gorilla glue
  • Water proof silicone
  • flat head screw driver, hammer or crowbar (or combination of the 3)
  • Worms, these are not optional (European night crawlers or Red Wigglers)  You can order them online, or get European night crawlers at the bait shop (they are known as red worms or trout worms there usually sold in batches of 30 to 48, if you look at the worm it will be red and banded).  You will need about 150 worms to start.  This is about $18 from the bait shop, you can get about 1000 of them online for about $35-40.  If you look on craigslist you may find a local provider for cheaper.

List of parts and locations

  • (1) 55 gallon food grade barrel – I found this on craigslist anywhere from $10 to $20
  • (1) 4-inch PVC pipe 5-foot or 10-foot section
  • (2) 4″ PVC MPT Plug Sewer & Drain Lid
  • (2) 4″ PVC Fitting Cleanout SPT x FPT (The cap above will fit screw in; this should fit over the end of the PVC pipe)
  • (1) 4″ PVC Coupling (Hub x Hub) Sewer & Drain
  • (5) caster wheels
  • (2) 2″ x 4″  (8 foot; recommend cedar, dogwood, treated wood, pine in that order)
  • (1) 4″ x 4″  (4 feet; recommend cedar, dogwood, treated wood pine in that order)
  • (40) #__ 2-1/2″ packs of screws
  • (20) #__ 2-1/2″ pack of screws
  • (1) 2″ x 2″ (optional 8 feet; recommend cedar, dogwood or treated wood, pine in that order)
  • (1) tray for water collection (kitty litter box, throwaway cooking pan
  • some rocks for the pan
  • 9 cubic feet of dirt (I recommend you buy bags to keep it as weed free as possible
  • 25 foot soaker hose (optional, but highly recommended)

Directions:

Cut the PVC pipe to approximately ____ inches

Barrel Prep

  1. Cut the vinyl to size of the barrel
  2. Draw template onto the vinyl with marker
    1. Draw  first row with 5 inch slots with 4 inches between slots starting 5 inches from the top and ___ inches from the side; this gives you a total of 9 slots; I would start with drawing dots where the lines begin and end and then use a straight edge to draw the lines
    2. Draw second row 4 inches down with a  4.5 inch offset from the first slot and
    3. Continue drawing rows alternating back and forth
  3. Cut the top of the barrel as close to the edge as you can
  4. Attach the template with clamps and ducting the two ends together or strapping a bungie cord (I haven’t tried this, but I think it should work) or do all 3; you will notice there are two ‘rings’ on the barrel, align the template so that the slots are at the bottom of the rings
  5. Drill holes where the slots start and stop
  6. Remove template
  7. (Optional) Draw lines between holes with a marker
  8. Cut the slots with ____ saw
  9. On the bottom of the barrel there is a line left behind from the form for the Barrel, the barrel should be 22 inches across, mark the middle of the barrel, approximately 11 inches
  10. place the tape measure perpendicular to this at the 11 inch mark
  11. Place the PVC pipe on the bottom of barrel and draw a circle around it doesn’t have to be exactly in the middle
  12. Drill a hole in the center and cut out the circle, you’ll want to make this tight so that most of the circle touches the PVC pipe

Now, I would have all your tools plugged in and ready to go, if you have 2 heat guns it will make this process faster as it will heat the plastic up quicker.  Get your wood barrel base materials close together and your compost tube close together.  I recommend this because there will be significant time between heating up the slots and placing the bottles into the slots and for the slots to cool off.  You can use the time in between for a break or work on the other pieces of the barrel.

Tips for heating the barrel slots

  • It takes about 3-5 minutes with two heat guns, the top slots and the bottom slots tend to be the thickest part of the plastic on the barrel
  • Work 3 columns from top to bottom.
  • I would start at the top with two of the Welch’s bottles and then do the bottom two with two beer bottles.
  • At the bottom, I shoved the bottles all the way down to the base of the bottle (note to self, the plastic is hot.
  • Work the slot open with flat head and then a hammer or crowbar after about a minute or two; this also gives you an idea of how flexibility of the plastic.
  • The plastic becomes a bit shiny/glossy when it gets hot enough, you’ll be able to see that if you look close enough
  • I work the two outside rows (outside row are the slots closest to the top and where your beer bottles are) first and then the inside row (this is where 12 Welch’s bottle comes in handy)
  • Wait until the outside row is cooled off, once it has, shift over to the next ‘outside’ row and work on the bottom and insert the 3rd beer bottle
  • Slowly move the outside row over and then work the inside row once it is done.

Wood base (this is how I did it, but I thought of a modification afterwards that will affect these sizes, so if you want you can modify the sizes)

Modification idea for wood base:

Modify the length of the pieces to the width of a kitty litter box plus the width of 2″ x 2″ boards that you would screw in at the base of the box for rails.  Another option would be to put metal corner brackets in to hold up the box.   Keep in mind that the Clean out will be poking through the bottom so you will need to be able to clear that with the box which may be possible by slanting the box and then bring it back up, however, you will need to slant it back to get the water back out.

  1.  Cut the 2 x 4’s for the following pieces:
    1. (3) 20 inch sections
    2. (2) 16-1/2 inch sections
    3. (2) 13 inch sections
  2. Cut the 4 x4 for the following pieces:
    1. (1) 20 inch minus 2 times the width section
    2. (2) 20 inch sections
  3. Take the 4×4 pieces and make a ‘U’ out of it
  4. Take one 20-inch section and place it on the bottom of the U
  5. Take another 20-inch section and place it at the top of the U
  6. Take the two 13-inch sections and place it at the sides of the U
  7. They should all align and make a perfect box with a space under it at one end.
  8.  Drill pilot holes in a ‘V’ manner where the wood overlays at the corners
  9. Drill pilot holes in an inverse ‘V’ manner where the wood overlays in the middle
  10. Screw the wood pieces together
  11. Flip the Wood over so the 4 x 4 pieces are on top again
  12. Take the remaining 2 x2 pieces and overlay the ‘U’,  leaving the top of the ‘U’ open
  13. Place the wheels on top of the 2 x 2 pieces as to get an idea where you want pilot holes for that and mark those holes
  14. Drill pilot holes for both the wheels and elsewhere to solidify the frame before adding the wheels
  15. Screw the wood pieces together
  16. Put the wheels back over the pilot holes and loosely screw all 4 screws down first and then tight them up from alternating corners

Compost Tube

  1. Cut the PVC pipe to approximately ___ inches with a hacksaw
  2. Measure the inside of the clean-out fitting up to the point where the PVC pipe should end (should be about ___ inches)
  3. Make a few marks around both ends of the PVC ___ inches from the end and draw a line around the pipe
  4. Cut the coupling with a hacksaw so that you can slightly pull it apart
  5. Place the coupling at one end of the 4 inch PVC pipe so that the coupling is in the middle and lines up with one of the previous marked lines
  6. Draw a line at the other side of the coupling ring
  7. Take the coupling off
  8. Prep both the inside of the coupling and the outside of the with the PVC between the lines with the PVC cement purple primer; should be applied twice, a second time after the first time dries out
  9. While the second application of the primer is mostly wet apply cement to the PVC pipe
  10. Slide the coupling back in place and let set for a while
  11. Prime one of the clean out fittings and the PVC pipe at the end away from the coupling
  12. Apply cement to the fitting and attach to the PVC pipe and let set for a while
  13. Place PVC pipe inside the barrel through the hole at the bottom (prop the barrel on top of your wood block or something so the coupling touches the bottom of the barrel)
  14. Mark the PVC pipe with a straight edge placed across the top of the barrel
  15. Drill holes randomly between the coupling and the line; I drilled all the way down the side and then worked my way back up again, staggered from the first set of holes and continued all the way around it (continued below)

Do the following steps after all the slots are done on the barrel

  1. Place the pipe back in the barrel, turn the barrel over so that it is balancing on the compost tube
  2. Prime the PVC pipe and the other clean out fitting with the purple primer
  3. Apply cement to the clean out fitting and attach the fitting and let set
  4. Screw in the cap loosely, so you can get it back off, you won’t be able to turn the barrel on it’s side once the dirt is in place
  5. Use Gorilla Glue at the seam both on the outside and inside the barrel, this is a water proof glue and takes a few hours to harden
  6. Apply a silicone layer over the top of this and allow it to dry
  7. Place the barrel on the wooden base to get an idea where to drill holes around the bottom of the barrel for drainage.

Last steps:

NOTE: find a location where you can roll the barrel around, this will be a permanent location until you empty it of dirt, once that barrel is filled with dirt it is probably close to 400 pounds.   The location should get sun most of the day and should have very little overhead shade, this helps light get to the side of the barrel that doesn’t get any direct sun (aka, partial shade).  You will be able to rotate the barrel if needed; lettuce does well in partial shade during the heat of the summer, you can also plant something that could shade it as well.

  1. Drop in some leaves, paper or compost material up to the first worm holes on the compost tube.
  2. Place 3/4 to 1 cubic foot of soil in the bottom of the barrel
  3. Place the end of the soaker hose on top of that soil, trying to keep it centered between the inside of the barrel to the outside of the compost tube, with one whole loop.
  4. Before getting too far layering the soaker hose and soil, ensure you have enough soaker hose so the end of the hose sticks out of the top; alternate dropping in soil and layering the soaker hose in a ring.  I would also try to “firm” up the soil so that the pouches have soil in it and it doesnt compress later.
  5. Place some vegetable food scraps into the compost tube
  6. Add your worms to the compost tube and loosely screw on the lid.
  7. Plant your seeds or transplants!

Starting from Seed

The most traditional way of starting seeds for the home gardener is probably the direct-sow method, planting directly in ground according to the direction on the back of the seed pack.  Some may start them indoors in peat pots, left-over cell packs, or their homemade plastic containers like old sour cream or butter tubs filled with potting soil.

A lot of casual gardeners just buy the trays of transplants; however, there is a benefit to starting your own transplants from seed.  The problem with transplants is you have a very limited selection offered by most garden centers.  Most of the chain stores like Walmart, Home Depot, or Lowes typically only carry Burpee transplants and depending on the size of the transplant you will pay 10 to 50 times more than if you had started that same plant from seed.   There is nothing wrong with this if you have a small garden, but if you are seeking variety or have a larger garden, seeds are the way to go.  I for one love ground or husk cherries, a relative of the tomato, and I have only been able to find these transplants in one spot, the local farmers market in Woodstock, Illinois.  There are also many varieties of tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, and other vegetables you can’t get locally and can only get them from planting seeds.

You would think this would not be a very broad topic, but I have seen several effective techniques on the internet on how to start your seeds.  Also, you have to think about when to start your seeds, you would think that is easy too, and that I guess depends on what you are planning to plant.  I plant a broad variety of vegetables that need to be started at different times of year.  I do succession planting, for example instead of planting all your lettuce at once, you plant a few at a time so they are ready to harvest at staggered times.

In the past, I have used peat pellets in a mini-green house tray, these pellets could range up to 15 cents per pellet from the store, these can get a little expensive.  They are nice and you can find them in bulk of a 1000 for about 5 cents a pellet.  The one thing I don’t like about them is the casing doesn’t seem to compost very well and it seems to hamper the rooting system a little bit.  I have gone to cutting them off before transplanting though.

I have also used plastic tubs, like sour cream or salsa containers.  They are “free” and easy to collect.  The biggest problem with these for plants is you need to provide drainage holes for them.  The other thing I have done is reused old greenhouse-bought transplant pots that I have saved from previous years.  This year, I am trying out a couple of different methods to see if they work better, PLUS, there is only a one-time cost for these tools and the cost of the soil mix you would normally have to buy any ways.

Old Planting pots
Old Planting pots

The first method that I am going to try is using the Pot-Maker tool.  You use this tool in conjunction newspaper.  I had my doubts at first, but it seems to be working pretty well.  The great thing is the only outlay here is newspaper and soil.  They make about a 2-inch pot that will decompose when transplanted into the soil.  The roots will work their way through the newspaper before the newspaper is finished decomposing.  I have a good video on how easy it is to make these pots.

The second method that I am going to use are a soil-block makers.  These things are highly recommended and the only outlay is the initial cost of the tools and the soil it self.  No pots are involved with these.  The great thing about these is how many plants you can start off with them.  These will be great for a mass germination of certain plants, like onions.  The mini-block tool produces twenty 3/4-inch soil blocks.  You essentially can put almost 240 of these blocks into one tray, which saves time, space and electricity costs from lighting and heating (if needed).  There is a 2-inch block tool that comes with a couple of accessories, one of which places a 3/4-inch square hole into the soil block.

Supposedly, the great thing about these soil blocks is that they promote better root growth.  If you have ever noticed your transplants from plastic containers, they get root bound, grow out of the bottom of the container or into the cell next to it or they wind themselves all around the inside of the container.  With the soil-blocks the roots know when they have touched the edge and stop growing.  The roots will branch out and work themselves into the center of the block instead.

We shall see how things work, and I am going to run side-by-side tests to see which method produces the best results.  Have a great gardening day!

 

Seed Saving

Seed testing old lettuce seeds for viability
Seed testing old lettuce seeds for viability

Stop! Don’t throw away your seed packets; the seeds may still be viable for this year.  I have saved my seeds for the past few years, and I know I have not stored them properly, but most of my seeds are still good from the previous years.

This Seed Viability Chart gives you an idea of what seeds to save. Personally, I would not throw away the seeds immediately even if the chart says they don’t work.

The way I test seeds is folding a coffee filter in half, write the seed name, the date, and then lightly moisten it.  I unfold it, place a fair amount of seeds for testing (if you have 200 lettuce seeds, put in 10).  Testing 20 seeds, I would wait until you want to transplant those and order a backup ahead of time, in case the seeds are no good.  After I place the seeds in the middle, I refold it in half, fold up the sides a little bit, and place it in a plastic bag.  I prefer to use the coffee filter for germination of seeds because the roots cannot work their way through the paper, like they would through a paper towel.

Keep in mind, you need proper germinating temperature for your seeds, some seed packets have this information.  If not here is another chart for germination.  Happy testing!

Write seed name and date on filter.
1) Write seed name and date on filter.
2) Moisten the filter with a little bit of water, do not get it dripping wet.
2) Moisten the filter with a little bit of water, do not get it dripping wet.
3) Place the seeds on to the filter, try to arrange it in a nice orderly fashion if you want to count the germination easily.
3) Place the seeds on to the filter, try to arrange it in a nice orderly fashion if you want to count the germination easily.
4) Fold the filter back in half and fold up the sides so it can fit easily into the Ziploc bag.
4) Fold the filter back in half and fold up the sides so it can fit easily into the Ziploc bag.

 

 

The Wholesome Earth Rebooted

Chives
Ron’s Chives — Eastern PA — Spring 2014

Welcome to The Wholesome Earth. The intent of this website is to provide information that supports sustainable living practices, this includes: edible landscaping through turning your livable space into food production, waste reduction through composting, and supporting local food production through shopping at farmers markets, farm stands, or pick’ ems.

Furthermore, we will review gardening sites, gardening books, gardening techniques, gardening tools, seed companies, and catalogs. We will also provide valuable information about different vegetables, fruits, herbs, edible flowers and plants that attract beneficial insects and birds. Eventually, we will go through food storage, recipes, food processing tools, and equipment.

We started this website about a year ago and the website was brought down either by hackers or accidental deletion. Lesson learned. We have secured the blog a little better this time and have implemented backup measures.  We currently have two contributors to this site: Garrett Amick (me) and Ron Lease. So you will see different planting timelines as to what we are currently doing throughout the seasons because we live in different parts of the country. (Garrett’s in USDA zone 5a and Ron’s in zone 7a [more on these in a later post.]) 

Hopefully, we can provide you some different information than what you have seen in the past or from traditional gardening methods that you may know. Also, we certainly appreciate any feedback through comments or emails. Please feel free to share our posts freely. If you are interested in guest posting, please contact us.  Also, you can follow us on Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Google+ or Tumblr.

Turn your yard into sustainable living with Edible Landscaping, Vegetable Gardening, Gardening Techniques, Garden Site Reviews

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